russian empire population
The empire had a predominantly agricultural economy, with low productivity on large estates worked by Russian peasants, known as serfs, who were tied to the land in a feudal arrangement. Learn more about the history and significance of the Russian Empire in this article. Initially lost to the USSR, most of these territories reverted to imperial control during World War II – some indication of the area’s continuing strategic and economic importance. In 1859, there were more than 23 million serfs in usually poor living conditions. It was the supreme court of cassation; an audit office, a high court of justice for all political offences; one of its departments fulfilled the functions of a heralds' college. The next census to take place in Russia only occurred at the end of 1926, almost three decades later.  The result was the January Uprising, a massive Polish revolt, which was crushed by massive force. There is a separate list (For… By the end of the 19th century the area of the empire was about 22,400,000 square kilometers (8,600,000 sq mi), or almost 1⁄6 of the Earth's landmass; its only rival in size at the time was the British Empire. The long-term plan was for a university in every region, a secondary school in every major city, upgraded primary schools, and – for the largest number of students –a parish school for every two parishes. But the government was living far beyond its means, and 18th-century Russia remained "a poor, backward, overwhelmingly agricultural, and illiterate country". Moreover, a democratic element was introduced by the adoption of the jury system and – so far as one order of tribunal was concerned – the election of judges. His attention then turned to the North.  Emancipation brought a supply of free labour to the cities, stimulating industry, and the middle class grew in number and influence. But the cost of her campaigns added to the burden of the oppressive social system, which required serfs to spend almost all of their time laboring on their owners' land. Subdivisions of the Russian Empire by largest ethnolinguistic group (1897).svg 4,648 × 2,744; 693 KB. Both Fort Ross and the Russian River in California got their names from Russian settlers, who had staked claims in a region claimed until 1821 by the Spanish as part of New Spain. Despite this being the only census they ever took, Historians were able to find out the Russian Empire's population in earlier periods of time still from collecting city censuses. Kiev gubernia (province) – administrative unit of the Russian Empire, one of the first eight provinces in Russia. Before this date, the fundamental laws of Russia described the power of the Emperor as "autocratic and unlimited". Of the rest 8 Governorates were in Finland, 10 in Poland. Turkic languages in the Russian Empire (1897).svg 4,648 × 2,744; 1.4 MB. The rates were highest for the nobility (84 to 87 percent), merchants (over 75 percent), then the workers and peasants. Tatar languages in the Russian Empire (1897).svg 4,648 × 2,744; 1.4 MB. Wikipedia. The copies in St. Petersburg were destroyed after they had been tabulated. of self-government and numerous privileges in matters affecting education, police and the administration of local justice. By 1900 there were 17,000 university students, and over 30,000 were enrolled in specialized technical institutes. In the harsh and bitter Russian winter, thousands of French troops were ambushed and killed by peasant guerrilla fighters. The urban population was divided into two categories according to taxable wealth, and elected delegates directly to the college of the Governorates. He argues that they brought about measurable improvements in social welfare. Her reign, which lasted nearly 20 years, is also known for her involvement in the Seven Years' War.  Nearly the entire population was devoted to agricultural estates. This council consists of all the ministers and of the heads of the principal administrations. The Bolsheviks declared “no annexations, no indemnities” and called on workers to accept their policies and demanded the end of the war. More than 100 different ethnic groups lived in the Russian Empire, with ethnic Russians composing about 45% of the population.. Wikipedia. This marked the beginning of the Revolution of 1905. Its wide variety of functions were carried out by the different departments into which it was divided. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks. Peasants had no use for literacy, and people who did such as artisans, businessmen and professionals were few in number – as late as 1851, only 8% of Russians lived in cities. These gestures of compassion garnered Catherine much positive attention from Europe in the Enlightenment age. , The results allegedly may reflect the views on national policy of the authorities. In 1889, a Russian adventurer, Nikolay Ivanovitch Achinov, tried to establish a Russian colony in Africa, Sagallo, situated on the Gulf of Tadjoura in present-day Djibouti. The principal ecclesiastical authority of the Russian Church that extended its jurisdiction over the entire territory of the Empire, including the ex-Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, was the Most Holy Synod, the civilian Over Procurator of the Holy Synod being one of the council of ministers with wide de facto powers in ecclesiastical matters.  For the rest of the century, the national government continued to focus on universities, and generally ignore elementary and secondary educational needs. Film «Moscow clad in snow», 00:07:22, 1908, first Russian colonization of the Pacific, Russia in the American Revolutionary War § Russian Diplomacy during the War, introduced a number of increasingly erratic decrees, Government reforms of Alexander II of Russia, 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, History of the administrative division of Russia, Brig "Mercury" Attacked by Two Turkish Ships, "Chapter One On the Essence of Supreme Sovereign Power, Article 7. He also retained an absolute veto over all legislation, and only he could initiate any changes to the Organic Law itself. "Historiography and national identity among the Eastern Slavs: towards a new framework. Novgorod Republic • Vladimir-Suzdal Like all empires, it featured great diversity in terms of economies, ethnicities, languages, and religions. In the 19th century, they were closely watched by the imperial secret police, and thousands were exiled to Siberia.  Were peasants living in tens of thousands of small villages and a highly patriarchal system. The most spoken languages, from which nationality was determined were:. On the appointed day, 150,000 census takers spread out into the environs of the nation and completed over thirty million sheets of returns. The administrative boundaries of European Russia, apart from Finland and its portion of Poland, coincided approximately with the natural limits of the East-European plains. The late 1820s were successful military years. Though the Empire was not officially proclaimed by Tsar Peter I until after the Treaty of Nystad (1721), some historians argue that it originated when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478. A Review Article", Suny, Ronald Grigor. Russia had signed the Treaty of Georgievsk with the Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti to protect them against any new invasion of their Persian suzerains. Its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov, ruled from 1762 until the end of the empire. He taught his imperial pupils to fear freedom of speech and press, as well as disliking democracy, constitutions, and the parliamentary system. "The economic development of Russia. After the Russian armies liberated allied (since the 1783 Treaty of Georgievsk) Eastern Georgian Kingdom from the Qajar dynasty's occupation in 1802, in the Russo-Persian War (1804–13) they clashed with Persia over control and consolidation over Georgia, and also got involved in the Caucasian War against the Caucasian Imamate. Such a census has occurred at various irregular points in the history of Russia. , Although the Russian Empire played a leading political role in the next century, thanks to its defeat of Napoleonic France, its retention of serfdom precluded economic progress of any significant degree. In this case, the population of Russian ethnicity was inflated. Although Napoleon's Grande Armée reached Moscow, the Russians' scorched earth strategy prevented the invaders from living off the country. Native people of the Caucasus, non-ethnic Russian areas such as Tartarstan, Bashkirstan, Siberia and Central Asia were officially registered as a category called inorodtsy (non-Slavic, literally: "people of another origin"). Many of the government and other major buildings were designed with Italianate influence. They thus tended to ally themselves with the forces of bourgeois liberalism. Both lines served the commercial and strategic needs of the empire, and facilitated migration.. Many reforms were promised, but few were actually carried out before 1820 when he turned his attention to foreign affairs and personal religion and ignored reform issues. 15 January] 1897. The deep indentations of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland were surrounded by what is ethnically Finnish territory, and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians had taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva River. (March 2019 The Russian Empire was formed by Russians in modern-day Russia. The western boundary was purely conventional: it crossed the Kola Peninsula from the Varangerfjord to the Gulf of Bothnia. The total population of the Russian Empire was recorded to be 125,640,021 people (50.2% female, 49.8% male; urban 16,828,395 ). The Russian Empire was a hereditary monarchy headed by an emperor. When Tsar Alexander II ascended the throne in 1855, desire for reform was widespread. Kiev Gubernia at Russian Empire Population census 1897. , On the right, the reactionary elements of the aristocracy strongly favored the large landholders, who however were slowly Selling their land to the peasants through the Peasant Bank. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system. Steven Hoch, "Did Russia's Emancipated Serfs Really Pay Too Much for Too Little Land? The areas increased every year; one-fifth of the inhabitants left their houses; cattle disappeared. Upon its creation in 1721 the Russian Empire possessed a multinational population of about 17.5 million. A part of them were formerly serfs (10,447,149 males in 1858) – the remainder being " state peasants " (9,194,891 males in 1858, exclusive of the Archangel Governorate) and " domain peasants " (842,740 males the same year). ", Richard Cavendish, "The Bolshevik-Menshevik split November 16th, 1903. The allotments could be redeemed by peasants with the help of the Crown, and then they were freed from all obligations to the landlord. This area (Bessarabia) was among the Russian Empire's last territorial increments in Europe. These elected their delegates to the Duma directly, and though their votes were divided (on the basis of taxable property) in such a way as to give the advantage to wealth, each returned the same number of delegates. There were many dissident elements that launched numerous rebellions and assassinations over the centuries. The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), which formed the Lower House of the Russian parliament, consisted (since the ukaz of 2 June 1907) of 442 members, elected by an exceedingly complicated process. Its official language was the Russian language. In 1913, 80% of the people were peasants. Food and fuel were in short supply, casualties were increasing, and inflation was mounting. The Russian Empire emerged as one of the great world powers and played a leading role in international events, like the War of 1812 and World War I. Alexander II’s Great Reforms included the peaceful emancipation of approximately 20 million serfs. The second Russian Census was scheduled for December 1915, but was cancelled because of the outbreak of World War I one and a half years earlier (in July 1914). Of the peasants, 25 percent cultivated church lands, Only one-quarter of the peasants were farmers; the remainder were mere laborers. Literacy among women was very low.  Most of the copies stored at the local and regional level have also been destroyed; however, the complete census for the Arkhangelsk and Tobolsk governorates has been preserved, and the census for portions of several other governorates is also extant. Rabinowitch argues that "[t]he February 1917 revolution ... grew out of prewar political and economic instability, technological backwardness, and fundamental social divisions, coupled with gross mismanagement of the war effort, continuing military defeats, domestic economic dislocation, and outrageous scandals surrounding the monarchy. The result was the Decembrist revolt (December 1825), the work of a small circle of liberal nobles and army officers who wanted to install Nicholas' brother as a constitutional monarch. Although he made and annulled all senior ecclesiastical appointments, he did not determine the questions of dogma or church teaching. Modernization of government required much larger numbers, but that, in turn, required an educational system that could provide suitable training. This relocation expressed his intent to adopt European elements in his empire. The budget allocated 46 percent to the military, 20 percent to government economic activities, 12 percent to administration, and nine percent for the Imperial Court in St. Petersburg. Publication of the results started in 1898 and ended in 1905. The data processing took 8 years using Hollerith card machines. Mironov, Boris N. (2010) "Wages and Prices in Imperial Russia, 1703–1913,", Stolberg, Eva-Maria. However this attempt angered the French, who dispatched two gunboats against the colony. The Russian Empire[a] was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. Largest cities of the Empire according to the census: Each enumeration form was copied twice, with the three copies filed in the county archives, the governorate archives, and the Central Statistical Bureau in St. Petersburg. Emperor Peter the Great (1682–1725) fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power. In order to ensure continued support from the nobility, which was essential to the survival of her government, Catherine was obliged to strengthen their authority and power at the expense of the serfs and other lower classes.  Newspapers were strictly limited in what they could publish, as intellectuals favored literary magazines for their publishing outlets. The official vassals of the Russian Empire included the Emirate of Bukhara and Khiva Khanate. How to Order Photocopies December 30, 2017. The parochial clergy had to be married when appointed, but if left widowers were not allowed to marry again; this rule continues to apply today. The western territories of the Russian Empire were always perceived as the most important and in some ways the most threatening regions of non-Russian population. According to returns published in 1905, based on the Russian Imperial Census of 1897, adherents of the different religious communities in the whole of the Russian empire numbered approximately as follows. ", Suny, Ronald Grigor. Catherine the Great extended Russian political control over the lands of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Following the defeat of Napoleon, Alexander I had been ready to discuss constitutional reforms, but though a few were introduced, no major changes were attempted. Census of the population of Russia. When the procession reached the palace, soldiers opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. The latter path was advocated by Slavophiles, who held the "decadent" West in contempt. It was reserved for the third Duma, after the 1905 Revolution, to begin the reversal of this process.[c]. During the years 1861 to 1892 the land owned by the nobles decreased 30%, or from 850,000 to 610,000 km2 (210,000,000 to 150,000,000 acres); during the following four years an additional 8,577 km2 (2,119,500 acres) were sold; and since then the sales went on at an accelerated rate, until in 1903 alone close to 8,000 km2 (2,000,000 acres) passed out of their hands. In this it differed from contemporary colonial-style empires. Here are some little-known facts about the empire and its most interesting rulers. By the end of 1905, there was disunity among the reformers, and the tsar's position was strengthened for the time being. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West. Справочник статистических показателей, "Russia, Jewish Families in Russian Empire Census, 1897", "Documents of the First General Census of the population of Russian Empire in the Ukrainian Archives", Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и регионам, The First General Census of the Russian Empire of 1897. It is a special feature of Russia that it has few free outlets to the open sea other than on the ice-bound shores of the Arctic Ocean. ", Smith, Steve. Many peasants took "gratuitous allotments," whose amount was about one-eighth of the normal allotments. The right to vote was extended and no law was to become final without confirmation by the Duma. Under Alexander III, however, by laws promulgated in 1892 and 1894, the municipal dumas were subordinated to the governors in the same way as the zemstvos. She also removed the tax on beards, instituted by Peter the Great.. Oliver H. Radkey, "An Alternative to Bolshevism: The Program of Russian Social Revolutionism. The ministries were as follows: The Most Holy Synod (established in 1721) was the supreme organ of government of the Orthodox Church in Russia. A majority of the people, 81.6%, belonged to the peasant order, the others were: nobility, 0.6%; clergy, 0.1%; the burghers and merchants, 9.3%; and military, 6.1%. , In 1903, at the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in London, the party split into two wings: the gradualist Mensheviks and the more radical Bolsheviks. By contrast in Western Europe, urban men had about a 50 percent literacy rate. In the college itself, the voting for the Duma was by secret ballot and a simple majority carried the day.  It finally ended with an Anglo-Russian Entente in 1907. Each province of the Empire, except Central Asia, returned a certain number of members; added to these were those returned by several large cities. Poles dominated the Volhynian nobility and the Volhynian cities, which also had a strong Jewish element. Would-be revolutionaries were sent off to Siberia – under Nicholas I hundreds of thousands were sent to katorga there.. To the East it had the Asiatic territories of the Empire, Siberia and the Kyrgyz steppes, from both of which it was separated by the Ural Mountains, the Ural River and the Caspian Sea — the administrative boundary, however, partly extending into Asia on the Siberian slope of the Urals. Of the elected members, 3 were returned by the "black" clergy (the monks), 3 by the "white" clergy (seculars), 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland. Workmen were treated in special manner with every industrial concern employing fifty hands or over electing one or more delegates to the electoral college. Meanwhile, France, looking for allies against Germany after 1871, formed a military alliance in 1894, with large-scale loans to Russia, sales of arms, and warships, as well as diplomatic support. Under Pobedonostsev, revolutionaries were persecuted and a policy of Russification was carried out throughout the Empire. Strauss, Johann. The state peasants were better off, but still, they were emigrating in masses. Everyone began to mobilize, and Berlin decided to act before the others were ready to fight, first invading Belgium and France in the west, and then Russia in the east. The liberal elements among industrial capitalists and nobility believed in peaceful social reform and a constitutional monarchy, forming the Constitutional Democratic Party or Kadets. The Gulf of Riga and the Baltic belong also to territory which was not inhabited by Slavs, but by Baltic and Finnic peoples and by Germans. More than one hundred different ethnic and religious groups lived in the Russian Empire, with the majority of Russians comprising 45 percent of … The Social Democrats differed from the SRs in that they believed a revolution must rely on urban workers, not the peasantry. It ended with the abdication of Nicholas II on March 15, 1917. Nicholas tolerated Uvarov's achievements until 1848, then reversed his innovations. In the second stage. Previous versions of the black eagle on gold background were used as far back as Peter the Great's time. Regional Thematic Articles. At most, other nationalities had the right to form small cavalry units (Caucasia… He photographed farms, small villages, and churches, capturing the daily lives of the people he encountered along the way. Soviets (councils of workers) appeared in most cities to direct revolutionary activity. The membership was manipulated as to secure an overwhelming majority of the wealthy (especially the landed classes) and also for the representatives of the Russian peoples at the expense of the subject nations. While the modern Russian Federation currently controls the Kaliningrad Oblast, which comprised the northern part of East Prussia, this differs from the area captured by the Empire in 1914, though there was some overlap: Gusev (Gumbinnen in German) was the site of the initial Russian victory. They formed a loose Triple Entente that played a central role in the First World War. Following the Swedish defeat in the Finnish War of 1808–1809 and the signing of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on 17 September 1809, the eastern half of Sweden, the area that then became Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as an autonomous grand duchy. While revenue rose from 9 million rubles in 1724 to 40 million in 1794, expenses grew more rapidly, reaching 49 million in 1794. Of mountains separating it from Russia but they typically retained their village connections the Austro-Hungarian Empire, with forces... Not that the situation of the railway network after 1860 had far-reaching effects on the economy,,... The throne in 1855, desire for reform also Orthodox church in Hawaii Russian! Increased, after Partitions of Poland, Russia was divided into two categories according to 1897 census was Russian. 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